Joseph C. Okeibunor1*, Ikechukwu Ogbuanu2, Anya Blanche1, Kwame Chiwaya3, Geoffrey Chirwa4, Zorodzai Machekanyanga5, Richard Mihigo1, Felicitas Zawaira1
1WHO/AFRO, Brazzaville, Congo
2WHO/HQ, Geneva, Switzerland
3WHO, Lilongwe, Malawi
4Ministry of Health, Malawi
5WHO/IST East & Southern Africa
Background: Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOVs), estimated to be about 32-47% of child healthcare clinic visits in various settings globally, contribute to unfulfilled childhood vaccination coverage targets in the African region.
Objective: We assessed the extent of MOVs, identify local drivers and test interventions to reduce MOVs in Malawi.
Method: We conducted in-depth and key informant interviews with administrators of district hospitals and officers in charge of community health facilities. Focus group discussions were held with health workers and caregivers of children under 24 months of age who received services from study health facilities in Malawi. Coverage rates were collected from the health facility récords.
Results: Vaccination is appreciated in the communities, but coverage is generally below targets. In some facilities, reported coverage was less than 50%. Opportunities to provide up-to-date vaccination for children were missed due to lack of awareness and knowledge of health workers and caregivers, attitude and priority of health workers, long waiting time, poor coordination and referral of eligible children by clinicians and nurses and overall lack of a team approach to vaccination perceived as a responsibility of health surveillance assistants. Other notable issues included limited time of caregivers labouring on estate farms, unavailability of vaccines resulting from poorly functioning of cold chain equipment and limited transport and failure to appreciate the impact of MOV on poor immunization coverage.
Conclusion: Simple, low-cost, pragmatic and community-driven interventions that may reduce MOVs and improve vaccine coverage.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/si.1107 View / Download Pdf
Blanche Anya*, Joseph Okeibunor, Richard Mihigo, Alain Poy, Felicitas Zawaira
WHO Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo
Background: Some progress has been made in expanding immunization in the African Region over the last four decades. However, an estimated 22% of the eligible children in the African Region, located in four countries of the African Region (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria and South Africa), continue to miss vaccination services for various reasons. This paper documents the status of routine immunization in the African Region.
Methods: Programme records, reports and statistics were reviewed for this paper.
Results: Challenges remain in reaching an estimated 20–30% of children across the Region. In addition to the traditional vaccines (DTP, measles, polio and tuberculosis) newer ones, such as for Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rotavirus, are being rolled out in the Region but uptake and coverage are slow and patchy both within and between countries.
Conclusion: The new regional strategic plan for immunization 2014–2020 is intended to provide policy and programmatic guidance to Member States, in line with the 2011–2020 Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP), in order to optimize immunization services and assist countries to further strengthen their immunization programmes.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/si.1108 View / Download Pdf
Godfrey S. Getz1* and Catherine A. Reardon2
1Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
2Ben May Institute for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Atherosclerosis is the underlying basis for most cardiovascular diseases. It is a chronic inflammation affecting the arterial intima and is promoted by hypercholesterolemia. Cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to this inflammation with macrophages and T cells being the most abundant immune cells in the atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we discuss the studies that examined the role of T cells and T cell subsets in Apoe-/- and Ldlr-/- murine models of atherosclerosis. While there is a general consensus that Th1 cells are pro-atherogenic and regulatory T cells are atheroprotective, the role of other subsets is more ambiguous. In addition, the results in the two models of atherosclerosis do not always yield similar results. Additional studies in the two murine models using cell specific gene manipulations are needed.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/3.1144 View / Download Pdf
Jheng-Yu Wu1, 2, Niko Moses1,2, Wenlong Bai3, Xiaohong Mary Zhang1,2*
1Department of Oncology, Molecular Therapeutics Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Michigan 48201
2Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201
3Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612
The oncogene HDAC6 controls numerous cell processes that are related to tumorigenesis and metastasis, and has recently arisen as a target to treat malignancies. The ERK cascade is a classic pathway driving oncogenesis, and the components of this pathway are either highly mutated in cancers or are vital in cancer’s pathological activity. The interactions between these important components of tumor proliferation have been examined, and our research has demonstrated that they regulate each other as evidenced by different posttranslational modifications. Preclinical evidence also supports clinical trials cotargeting these two pathways, which may provide better efficacy than single treatment. Furthermore, HDAC6 and ERK both participate in the regulation of T cell maturation and may have implications on the functions of immune cells. This leads to the possibility of connecting HDAC6 and ERK to immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the published studies about the interaction of HDAC6 and ERK cascade and their relationship to cancers. We also include the association of HDAC6 and ERK to immune system and discuss the plausibility of linking these to immunotherapy.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/3.1143 View / Download Pdf
Ana Cirac1,2,3, Uta Behrends1,2,3, and Josef Mautner1,2,3*
1Children’s Hospital, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany
2Research Unit Gene Vectors, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Munich, Germany
2German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), partner site Munich, Germany
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous γ-herpesvirus, has been implicated in the etiology of several acute and chronic inflammatory, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. Although considered a genetically stable virus, recent sequence information obtained from a large number of viral isolates from around the world revealed that numerous viral variants exist. Whether these different strains differ in pathogenicity and immunogenicity and thereby contribute to the varying incidence rates of several EBV-associated diseases in different geographical regions is now studied intensively. The recent identification of amino acid sequence polymorphisms in a high percentage of all known virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell epitopes, and of holes in the individual T-cell repertoire against epitopes derived from strain variants, may suggest that antiviral immunity is incompletely cross-protective against diverse EBV strains. These findings may have implications for immunological approaches seeking to prevent, monitor, or treat EBV-associated diseases.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/3.1145 View / Download Pdf
Kazuhiko Hashimoto1*, Yutaka Oda1, Kotaro Yamagishi1, Ichiro Tsukamoto1, Masao Akagi1
1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kindai University Hospital, Osaka-Sayama City, Osaka 589-8511, Japan
Background: Some reports have shown that metabolic syndrome, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, contributes to osteoarthritis (OA) development. Further, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), which contributes to atherosclerosis, have also been considered factors contributing to OA development. Several studies have suggested that the LOX-1/ox-LDL system is involved in OA development in vitro. We have suggested the same and conducted in vitro and in vivo studies to validate this concept. However, the role of the LOX-1/ox-LDL system in OA development has not been clarified. This study aimed to identify the mechanism of the LOX-1/ox-LDL system to clarify OA development.
Methods: A zymosan-induced arthritis model was used to identify the mechanism of the LOX-1/ox-LDL system using LOX-1-knockout (KO) mice. Zymosan was administered via the intra-articular route to induce arthritis.
Results: From our experiment, we found that the LOX-1/ox-LDL system contributes to OA development through matrix metalloproteinase-3.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the treatment of abnormal lipid metabolism may contribute to the prevention and suppression of arthritis.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/3.1139 View / Download Pdf
Mahmoud M. Bakr1, Simon Guan2, Norman Firth3, Robert M. Love1*
1School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Australia
2School of Dentistry, University of Otago, New Zealand
3University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
There is increasing evidence suggesting that cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDIs) either are themselves targets for genetic change in cancer or are disrupted secondarily by other oncogenic events. Cyclin D1 and p27KIP1 are two important regulators at the G1/S checkpoint. Cyclin D1 is an oncogene of cell cycle regulation with positive effect. Normally, cyclin D1 at G1 is constant or at a very low level and its excessive expression may be associated with the disordered proliferation of cells leading to malignant change. On the other hand, p27KIP1 is an anti-oncogene for cell cycle regulation, which functions as a negative regulator. Under the regulation of TGF-β, p27KIP1 inhibits the activity of oncogenes and controls the transition of the G1/S phase mainly by the interaction with CDK and CDK-Cyclin in order to inhibit cell proliferation and give cells opportunities to repair DNA. In addition, p27KIP1 not only acts as CDK inhibitor, but also promotes cell differentiation and induces the apoptosis of cells. In this article we review studies that have explored the effects of cyclin D1 and P27KIP1 on cancer progression and dysplasia with a specific focus on oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We also aim to shed some light on the different means of evaluating the interaction between Cyclin D1 and P27KIP1 as well as the immunohistochemical reactions associated with different forms of cyclin D1.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/3.1142 View / Download Pdf
1Emergency Department, Humanitas Research Hospital, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Italy
The term post-cardiac injury syndrome (PCIS) defines a group of inflammatory diseases involving predominantly the pericardium. The syndrome results from a cardiac injury and refers mainly to post-myocardial infarction pericarditis, post-pericardiotomy syndrome and post-traumatic pericarditis (including iatrogenic conditions appearing after percutaneous interventions).
Signs and symptoms are similar to those seen in acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion in other clinical settings. The diagnosis is clinical and could be challenging in the Emergency Department (ED). PCIS should be considered as an alternative diagnosis to acute pericarditis in case of unilateral right-sided, massive, or transudative pleural effusion.
Although typically a benign condition, PCIS may result in significant morbidity and potential mortality; tamponade and constrictive pericarditis represent the leading complications. Therefore, early detection is clinically relevant. Currently, a combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine is the mainstay treatment for this condition. Colchicine has also appeared to be effective in primary prevention of PCIS after cardiac surgery.
The purpose of this article is to review the principle clinical characteristics of PCIS in order to achieve an early diagnosis.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/3.1127 View / Download Pdf
Emmanuel E. Ekanem1*, Joanan M. Ikobah1, Henry C. Okpara2
1DEPARTMENT OF PAEDIATRICS, UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR AND UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR TEACHING HOSPITAL, CALABAR, NIGERIA.
2DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR AND UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR TEACHING HOSPITAL, NIGERIA.
The faeco-orally transmitted hepatotropic viruses – hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses- are endemic in Africa. While transmission has reduced remarkbly in Europe and North America in the past decades, it has remained unchanged in Africa with hepatitis A prevalence remaining at above 50% and hepatitis E more than 7%. Much of this transmission occurs during childhood with the important drivers/predictors being poor water supply, poor sewage disposal facilities, low socioeconomic class, crowding, and poor social conditions arising from conflict. Initial clinical features in children are difficult to distinguish from malaria which is also endemic in the region. Commercially available ELISA kits present the best option for laboratory diagnosis of both viruses in Africa. While effective vaccines suitable for the African situation have been developed recently, improved water supply and sanitation are sine qua non for the prevention of transmission of both viruses among African children. Interventional studies are needed in the region.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/3.1138 View / Download Pdf
DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/3.1133 View / Download Pdf
Wee Kiat Tan1, Johan CK Tay2, Jieming Zeng3, Min Zheng4, Shu Wang2,3*
1Tessa Therapeutics, Pte Ltd., Singapore 239351
2Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543
3Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore 138669
4Department of Dermatology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, China 310009
Shiyu Dai1, Hualin Wang1, Fei Deng1*
1State Key laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China
Virus-like particles (VLPs) are highly organized particles that self-assemble from viral structural proteins. Like parental viruses, VLPs can be either non-enveloped or enveloped and can be produced in different expression systems depending on their complexity. Over the last three decades, VLPs have developed as a high-priority alternative to traditional vaccines against infectious pathogens due to their safety, simplicity and favorable immunological characteristics to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. Most of emerging and re-emerging viruses that pose a continuous threat to human health are enveloped, but few vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped VLPs provide new possibilities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic enveloped viruses. This review describes major progress and challenges in the production of enveloped VLPs, with respect to the main principles in the assembly and budding process, factors that need to be taken into account for the design strategies and choice of relevant production platforms.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/2.1118 View / Download Pdf
DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/2.1129 View / Download Pdf
Danielson H1*, Ylinen P1, Yrjönen T1, Lassila R2
1Orton Orthopaedic Hospital, Invalid Foundation, Helsinki, Finland
2Helsinki University and Coagulation Disorders unit, Department of Haematology and Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
S.R. Mishra1, Mihir Sarkar2*
1Department of Veterinary Physiology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, OUAT, Bhubabeswar, Odisha, 751003, India
2Physiology & Climatology Division, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh, 243122, India
Early embryonic mortality (EEM) has been shown to be the prime cause of pregnancy failure in domestic species incurring severe economic losses in terms of milk production in dairy cows in most of the tropical countries including India. Despite of the availability of various diagnosis methods for the pregnancy detection the domestic animals are still prone to reproductive failure before the onset of implantation. Recently, a group of genes called as interferon stimulated genes (ISG) have been shown to be expressed during peri-implanation period which could serve as a potential diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy in domestic species. The present mini review highlights the differential expression dynamics of interferon stimulated genes (ISG) during early pregnancy period in buffalo.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/2.1132 View / Download Pdf
David Escors1,2, Grazyna Kochan1*
1Navarrabiomed-Fundación Miguel Servet. Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra. Irunlarrea 3, 31008, Pamplona. Navarra. Spain.
2Division of Infection and Immunity. University College London, 5 University Street, WC1E 6JF London, United Kingdom.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) comprise certain types of myeloid subsets with strong immunosuppressive activities, which expand at high levels in pathological conditions such as cancer. A major drawback in the study of MDSCs is the extraordinary plasticity of the myeloid lineage that hampers the identification of MDSC subsets, especially in humans. Here we provide a brief overview on MDSCs, their differentiation and the current difficulties in classifying these immunosuppressive subsets.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/2.1135 View / Download Pdf
Anna E. D’Amico1 and Michelle R. Lennartz1*
1Department of Regenerative and Cancer Cell Biology, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue Albany, NY 12208, USA
During phagocytosis, internal membranes are recruited to the site of pathogen binding and fuse with the plasma membrane, providing the membrane needed for pseudopod extension and target uptake. The mechanism by which vesicles destined for the phagosome are generated, targeted, and fuse is unknown. We established that Golgi-associated protein kinase C-epsilon (PKC-ε) is necessary for the addition of membrane during FcγR -mediated phagocytosis. PKC-ε is tethered to the Golgi through interactions between its’ regulatory domain and the Golgi lipids PI4P and diacylglycerol; disruption of these interactions prevents PKC-ε concentration at phagosomes and decreases phagocytosis. The accumulated evidence suggests that PKC-ε orchestrates vesicle formation at the Golgi by a mechanism requiring lipid binding but not enzymatic activity. This review discusses how PKC-ε might mediate vesicle formation at the level of budding and fission. Specifically, we discuss PKC-ε binding partners, the formation of lipid subdomains to generate membrane curvature, and PKC-ε mediated links to the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton to provide tension for vesicle fission. Assimilating information from several model systems, we propose a model for PKC-ε mediated vesicle formation for exocytosis during phagocytosis that may be applicable to other processes that require directed membrane delivery and fusion.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/2.1134 View / Download Pdf
Manuel Freire1*, Pablo Barbeito1, Concepción S. Sarandeses1, Cristina Díaz-Jullien1, Juan Muras1, Guillermo Covelo1, David Moreira1 and Carmen Freire-Cobo1
1The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, CIBUS, Faculty of Biology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Prothymosin α (ProTα) is a 109-11 amino acid protein widely distributed in mammalian tissues and particularly abundant in lymphoid cells. Genomic and proteomic studies led to consider ProTα as a multifunctional protein implicated in nuclear and cytoplasmic functions. The nuclear function of ProTα is related to chromatin activity through its interaction with core histones and proteins involved in chromatin remodelling, whereas, processes related to the phosphorylation, the proteolytic processing to generate Thymosin α1, and the role as anti-apoptotic factor of ProTα, are linked to its cytoplasmic location. Affinity chromatography and co-immunoprecipitation experiments have demonstrated novel interactions of ProTα with acidic proteins such as SET, ANP32A, and ANP32B in the cytoplasm of proliferating lymphocytes. The stabilization of these interactions by chemical cross-linking with formaldehyde shows that they are formed through associations in six acidic complexes which correspond to selective interactions of SET and ANP32 proteins with ProTα. These ProTα-complexes also include cytoplasmic proteins implicated in membrane remodelling and in mitochondrial activity. In conclusion, these novel protein interactions of ProTα observed in proliferation activity and apoptosis studies, suggest that they might be related to mechanisms involved in the proliferation activity and the apoptotic control of lymphocytes.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/2.1130 View / Download Pdf
Melissa Ellermann1 and R. Balfour Sartor2, 3, 4*
1Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
2Departments of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
3Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
4Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
Host-associated microbial communities modulate numerous aspects of host physiology at the epithelial interface within mucosal environments. Perturbations to this symbiotic relationship between host and microbiota has been linked to numerous microbial-driven pathological states, including Crohn’s disease (CD). This is in part driven by the outgrowth of aggressive resident bacterial strains such as adherent and invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) and changes in bacterial physiology and function that promote enhanced mucosal association of pathobionts and aberrant stimulation of mucosal immunity. Endogenous bacteria from host-associated microbial communities can adopt a sessile lifestyle and form multicellular structures known as biofilms that are generated through the expression of extracellular adhesion factors that include curli amyloid fibrils, cellulose and type 1 pili. In addition to enabling bacterial attachment to mucosal surfaces, biofilm components also stimulate immune responses and can therefore instigate or perpetuate microbial-driven inflammatory diseases such as CD. These host-bacterial interactions provide pharmacological targets that can potentially be exploited to limit mucosal adherence of aggressive enteric bacteria, inappropriate stimulation of inflammatory immune responses and consequent development of chronic intestinal inflammation.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/2.1122 View / Download Pdf
Sreeparna Chakraborty1 & Gaurisankar Sa1*
1Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, Calcutta Improvement Trust Scheme VII M, Kolkata 700054, India
Modulation of immune cells to rejuvenate the immune responses against cancer becomes a promising strategy for cancer therapy. T-regulatory cells are one of the major hurdles in successful cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies discovered that apart from CD4+ Treg cells, CD8+ Tregs also play roles in tumor immune evasion. Moreover, CD8+ Tregs shows synergistic immunosuppression with CD4+ Treg cells in tumor microenvironment. Several phenotypic markers have been described for peripherally induced CD8+ Treg cells, but till now no universal phenotypic signature has yet established. FOXP3 is the master regulator of Treg cells and its transcription is critically regulated by promoter region as well as three intronic conserved non-coding regions, viz; CNS 1, 2 and 3. In this review, we have described the transcriptional networking associated with the regulation of FOXP3 in tumor-CD8+ Treg cells along with CD4+ nTreg and iTreg cells. Intervention of the intensive transcriptional machinery of FOXP3 regulation may aid to target Treg cells and thus could potentiate immunotherapy of cancer.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/2.1117 View / Download Pdf
José M. Serra López-Matencio1, Concepción Martínez Nieto1, Alberto Morell Baladrón1, Santos Castañeda2*
1Hospital Pharmacy Service, Hospital de la Princesa, IIS-Princesa, c / Diego de León 62; 28006-Madrid, Spain
2Rheumatology Service, Hospital de la Princesa, IIS-Princesa, c / Diego de León 62; 28006-Madrid, Spain
Biological agents are used to treat a variety of diseases in many therapeutic areas, including oncology, hematology, rheumatology, gastroenterology, dermatology, neurology, respiratory diseases, hormone deficiency and infections. Since biologics constitute many of the recently approved new therapies, clinical research of drug-drug interactions with biologics has been discussed. Here, we present a personal view of drug-drug interactions with monoclonal antibodies, a predominant class of therapeutic biologics. In this line, we think that the interactions of biological agents with other chemical drugs represent an important issue, completely unknown and with potentially prominent clinical implications, that will have to be taken into account in coming years.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/2.1126 View / Download Pdf
1Department of Human Kinetics and Applied Health Science, 3900 Bethel Drive, Bethel University, MN, USA
The emerging bioenergetic model for cognitive decline defines late-onset, neural impairment as symptomatic of brain starvation resulting from the physiological paradox of chronic cerebral hyperinsulinemia/hyperglycemia concurrent with episodic hypoglycemia. The catabolic injury to the brain occur linear to energy deficits and mirror the progression of peripheral, cellular insulin resistance and type II diabetes; this pathology of brain starvation is being recognized as Type III diabetes. An energetic construct of neurodegeneration centers on homeostatic energy failure, as hypothesized by Demetrius and Simon (2012)1; the model focuses on the centralized role of astrocytes for the metabolic coupling of lactate to feed hungry neurons. Healthy fed/fasted signaling within the cells of the brain involves coordinated action of astrocytes and neurons. The astrocytes’ primary mode of energy production, via brain-side, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), is glycolysis; glucose is metabolized anaerobically to lactate. Lactate is released by the astrocyte into the extracellular milieu and utilized as supplemental energy for neurons2 (Pellerin, 2007). A recent study, “PSEN1 Mutant iPSC-Derived Model Reveals Severe Astrocyte Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease,” published in Stem Cell Reports (2017)3 by a team from the University of Eastern Finland confirmed the role of astrocytes as lactate shuttles3. This study was the first to use human stem cells to demonstrate that in patients with AD astrocytes manifest pathological metabolic shifts. Conclusions of the study show astrocytes play a significant role in the early stages of the disease and contribute to metabolic changes in neurons leading to neurodegenerative pathology.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/2.1124 View / Download Pdf
Laura Comi1*, Elisa Di Filippo1, Franco Maggiolo1
1Division of Infectious Diseases, ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy
Introduction: The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) containing three active drugs from at least two different classes is the standard of care for HIV treatment worldwide. The availability of newer drugs with improved potency and tolerability and higher barrier to the development of resistance allows exploring the feasibility of ARV-sparing strategies, namely dual therapies. A dual therapy based on dolutegravir plus lamivudine could be an intriguing simplification strategy for individuals with stable HIV suppression on cART.
Results: Seven studies of dual therapy regimens based on dolutegravir plus lamivudine were critiqued. All of them report a low rate of therapeutic failure due to any cause and a small number of virologic failures. More important virologic failures were not associated with loss of future option as no resistance inducing mutation to ongoing drugs emerged. On the safety side, after the switch, very few short-term adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation were observed and surrogate markers of long term toxicities such as changes in lipid profile and renal function were minimally influenced or improved.
Discussion: Dolutegravir plus lamivudine as a switch option in patients with sustained viral control is still to be considered an experimental approach. Although small in number and heterogeneous in nature the studies that evaluated the effectiveness of dolutegravir plus lamivudine dual therapy have documented substantial virologic efficacy and tolerability of the regimen without exposing patients to the risk of selecting for INSTI-inducing resistance mutations.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/1.1120 View / Download Pdf
Xiaofeng Ding1, Shuanglin Xiang1*
1Key Laboratory of Protein Chemistry and Development Biology of State Education Ministry of China, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, P.R. China
Endocytosis is critical for normal cellular function through clearing foreign materials and protecting the host from pathogen/virus attack. Innate immune cells play important roles in specifically recognizing and degrading microbes by generating phagosomes and phagolysosomes. However, the knowledge of how innate immunity regulates endocytosis in vitro and in vivo remains limited. In this review, we attempt to systematically and comprehensively summarize our current understanding of endocytosis and the role of Rab GTPases in the innate immune system. Understanding the immunity mechanisms of endocytosis might help develop targeted therapeutics for various applications, including viral inactivation and clearance, pathogen removal and even adjuvant-enhanced antibody responses.DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2018/1.1121 View / Download Pdf