Vol 3-1 Review Article

A Review of Exosomes and their Role in The Tumor Microenvironment and Host-Tumor "Macroenvironment"

Kaity H. Tung, Marc S. Ernstoff, Cheryl Allen, Shin La Shu*

Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, USA

Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are important intercellular messengers that contribute to tumorigenesis and metastasis through a variety of mechanisms such as immunosuppression and metabolic reprogramming that generate a pre-metastatic niche favorable to tumor progression. Our lab has contributed further to the understanding of the miRNA payloads in TEX by demonstrating that human melanoma-derived exosome (HMEX) associated miRNAs contribute to the metabolic reprogramming of normal stroma. This mini-review highlights the role of TEX in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the hypothesis that exosomes may also generate a host-tumor “macroenvironment” beyond the TME through their miRNA and protein payloads, so to speak “fertilizing the soil for cancer seeding.”

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2019/1.1165 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-1 Commentary

Commentary: Exposure to High Endotoxin Concentration Increases Wheezing Prevalence Among Laboratory Animal Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study

Christian S Simoneti, Elcio O Vianna*

Department of Medicine; Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo; Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2019/1.1150 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-1 Commentary

Commentary: Small Molecule Inhibition of PD-1 Transcription is an Effective Alternative to Antibody Blockade in Cancer Therapy

Alison Taylor1*, Christopher E. Rudd2,3

1Leeds Institute of Medical Research, University of Leeds, School of Medicine, Wellcome Trust Brenner Building, St James’s University Hospital, LEEDS LS9 7TF, UK

2Division of Immunology-Oncology Research Center, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H1T 2M4, Canada

3Département de Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2019/1.1167 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-1 Mini Review

The Neuro-Psychological Axis of Smoking-Associated Cancer

Hildegard M Schuller*

Department of Biomedical & Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on similarities and synergism between smoking and psychological stress-induced modulations of growth stimulating and inhibiting regulatory networks in epithelial cells and epithelial cancers with emphasis on cancer stimulating neurotransmitters and their receptors as well as cancer inhibiting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and opioids. Hyperactive cAMP signaling downstream of beta-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) has been identified as the driving force of most smoking-associated cancers by numerous preclinical studies and psychological stress intensifies these effects while experimental stress reduction inhibits. The integration of cAMP reduction via stress reduction by pharmacological and psychological means such as psychotherapy, relaxation meditation and yoga into any cancer treatment strategy is recommended.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2019/2.1166 View / Download Pdf