Vol 4-3 Commentary

Commentary: HPV Catch-Up Vaccination Reduces the Prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 Infections and Cervical Disease: A Retrospective Study

Nick F. Hallam1*, Janet A. Parker2

1Colposcopy Clinic, Women's Outpatients, Cumberland Infirmary, Carlisle, England, United Kingdom

2Manchester Cytology Centre, Division of Laboratory Medicine, Manchester University, NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, England, United Kingdom

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2020/3.1191 View / Download Pdf
Vol 4-3 Review Article

Cytokine Storm and its Implication in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Chandreyee Datta, Ashish Bhattacharjee*

Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, 713209, West Bengal, India.

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a viral disease caused by novel corona virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Initial studies have shown the molecular resemblances in the receptor binding domains of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 which bind angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) receptors and helps the virus to enter into the host cells to cause infection. Illness caused by COVID19 ranges from mild common cold to life threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-organ dysfunction and shock. The key step in converting mild disease to severe is immune dysfunction and cytokine dysregulation resulting in “cytokine storm syndrome”. Clinical investigations in patients with COVID-19 have shown that a strong upregulation of cytokine and interferon production is common feature in SARS-CoV2-induced pneumonia, with an associated cytokine storm syndrome. Consequently, spotting of existing approved therapies with proper safety profiles to treat hyperinflammation is very essential in order to reduce COVID-19 associated mortality. Till date, no specific therapeutic drugs or vaccines are available to treat COVID-19. In this review, we intended to describe how cytokine storm is associated with the severity of COVID-19 disease and also tried to find out the best possible way to manage the hyperinflammatory response due to cytokine storm during COVID-19 infection using several interleukin receptor antagonists, inhibitors, intravenous immunoglobulins, cytokine adsorption device and repurposing of pre-existing antiviral and some antimalarial drugs etc.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2020/3.1190 View / Download Pdf
Vol 4-3 Review Article

Cystic Fibrosis in the Intestine and the Influence on Digestion

Oluwatoyin Adenike Adeyemo-Salami

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Anything that affects the absorption of nutrients and intestinal function will invariably affect the physical well-being or the health status of an individual. Cystic fibrosis is a disease condition that is autosomal recessive and affects organs that have epithelia including the gastrointestinal tract of which the intestine is part, and is the one that is primarily affected. The major aberration responsible for it is mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Phenotypical evidence of cystic fibrosis in the intestine includes obstruction, microbial dysbiosis, inflammation, acidity in the intestinal tract, malnutrition, immune dysfunction, intestinal dysmotility, appendiceal aberrations and intussusception. All these manifestations result in maldigestion and malabsorption of lipid, protein and carbohydrate in the intestine. The effect of cystic fibrosis on the digestion of certain micronutrients was also reported.

In this review, the pathophysiology, manifestations of cystic fibrosis in the gastrointestinal tract with emphasis on the small intestine, and the effects on digestion of macronutrients and micronutrients would be discussed.

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2020/3.1187 View / Download Pdf