Vol 3-4 Commentary

Commentary: NSAID-Induced Corneal Melt: Clinical Importance, Pathogenesis and Risk Mitigation

Basil Rigas1*, Wei Huang2,3, Robert A. Honkanen2

1Departments of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8175; USA

2Departments of Ophthalmology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-8175; USA

3Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, CN, China

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2019/4.1179 View / Download Pdf
Vol 3-4 Review

Immunosuppressive drugs in organ transplantation to prevent allograft rejection: Mode of action and side effects

Elisa Claeys, Kurt Vermeire*

KU Leuven Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute, Laboratory of Virology and Chemotherapy, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium

Organ transplantation is a life-saving therapeutic intervention that contributes to a better quality of life in patients with end-stage organ failure. Drastically improved outcome after organ transplantation occurred with the discovery and use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent or treat allograft rejection. Development of several immunosuppressive agents offers the option for a multidrug approach with non-overlapping toxicities. Still, the side effects of these agents can be severe, resulting in a shorter life expectancy for transplant patients compared to the general population. Therefore, the development of new immunosuppressive therapies that promote immune tolerance without the side effects observed today is needed. In this review, we will discuss the mechanism of allograft rejection as well as the mode of action and side effects of currently used immunosuppressive agents.

APC, antigen-presenting cell; ATG, antithymocyte globulin; IL, interleukin; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; NFAT, nuclear factor of activated T cells; Th, T helper; Treg, regulatory T

DOI: 10.29245/2578-3009/2019/4.1178 View / Download Pdf